Tag - air purifier technology

Trying to keep the dirty air away from their children and older parents.

NEW DELHI — For days, many in Delhi have been living as if under siege, trying to keep the dirty air away from their children and older parents.

 

But it is not easy: Open a window or a door, and the haze enters the room within seconds. Outside, the sky is white, the sun a white circle so pale that you can barely make it out. The smog is acrid, eye-stinging and throat-burning, and so thick that it is being blamed for a 70-vehicle pileup north of the city.

If in past years Delhi’s roughly 20 million residents shrugged off wintertime pollution as fog, over the past week they viewed it as a crisis. Schools have been ordered closed for three days — an unprecedented measure, but not a reassuring one because experts say the concentration of pollutants inside Indian homes is typically not much lower than outside.

A family rode a scooter during heavy smog and dust in Delhi on Sunday.

Levels of the most dangerous particles, called PM 2.5, reached 700 micrograms per cubic meter on Monday, and over the weekend they soared in some places to 1,000, or more than 16 times the limit India’s government considers safe. The damage from sustained exposure to such high concentrations of PM 2.5 is equivalent to smoking more than two packs of cigarettes a day, experts say.

 

“There is so much smog outside that today, inside my house, I felt as though someone had just burned a few sheets of paper,” said Amaan Ahuja, one of dozens who shared their families’ experiences in response to a request from The New York Times.

“You can literally see smoke in the air, and when you breathe, you can smell it, too,” he said. “We are trying to keep the kids indoors with all the windows closed.”

Another reader, Tulika Seth, described her family’s life over the past week as “unnatural and disturbing.”

Asked where she lived, she responded, “a gas chamber.”

To understand the health consequences of the dense smog that settled over India’s capital over the past week, scientists are looking back decades in search of a historical precedent:to the 1952 Great Smog of London, which is believed to have caused as many as 12,000 premature deaths.

In that case, a layer of dense pollution — caused largely by emissions from burning coal — dissipated after four days, when the weather changed. But an uptick in deaths continued for weeks afterward, so shocking the public that it spurred a wave of environmental regulations.

Delhi’s chief minister on Sunday announced a series of emergency measures, including a five-day moratorium on construction, a 10-day closure of a power plant and a three-day closure of about 1,800 public schools.

On Monday, the city government released a list of health guidelines, advising citizens to wash their eyes with running water and to go to a hospital if they were experiencing symptoms like “breathlessness, giddiness, chest pain and chest constriction.”

But experts said mitigating the conditions would have required policies to be put in place months ago.

“These are all decent emergency measures, but they’re not solving the long-term problem,” said Bhargav Krishna, who manages the Public Health Foundation of India’s environmental health center.

“The best we can hope for, in a way, is to plan for next year,” he added. “This year is almost a washout.”

Changing weather conditions are likely to disperse the dense cloud of pollutants over the next few days. But they will also bring the beginning of the widespread burning of trash, including plastic and rubber, for warmth by Delhi’s poor.

Among the persistent problems for policy makers is that the sources of the pollution — vehicles, construction, crop burning and holiday fireworks —

fall under the authority of half a dozen city, state and federal government bodies, which are in some cases at odds with one another politically, Mr. Krishna said.

“Where exactly is the responsibility for implementing these plans?” he said. “At whose desk does this all lie?”

He added, “The diffuse nature of power means that it is easy to pass on responsibility to others.”

Public anger over Delhi’s air is more palpable than in previous years, and people are more likely to identify pollution as the cause of their health problems.

Anumita Roychowdhury, who runs the air pollution program at the Center for Science and Environment, said that sense of urgency would have to be sustained if the city were to impose lifestyle changes, including restraints on car travel.

This has to translate to very strong support for very hard decisions,” she said. “All soft options are over.”

First, though, people here must get through the next few days.

Sherebanu Frosh, who lives in Gurgaon, south of Delhi, said she and her children were “cowering by our air purifiers,” which had become overloaded with the concentration of particles in the air.

“So we’re putting both our purifiers in one room and spending the day there,” she said. “If we leave, we wear masks.”

Jessica Farmer, whose children attend the American Embassy School in Delhi, said she had moved five purifiers into three rooms of her house, but the concentration of PM 2.5 in some places remained at 300, five times the W.H.O. recommended limit.

“It is as though we are under siege,” Ms. Farmer said. “We can’t go outside, to malls or movies where the air is not purified.

“How can one live like this?”

As for this situation,suggestion some olansi air purifier for you.02

03

You deserve it .

 

Air purifier market to pick up—— online sales will continue to grow

The Ministry of environmental protection 16 days to report, expected in November 16th this year to 20, North China, Huang Huai, Guanzhong area will appear heavy pollution, large range of air is expected to Beijing, Tianjin, the air quality in southern Hebei province and other regions will reach 4 consecutive days of severe pollution, part of the city in a certain period of time will be seriously polluted.

Insiders said that in recent years, frequent haze that city residents gradually increasing demand for air purifiers, air purification products from niche consumer to public view, is expected to air purifier market will show a clear warming trend this year, the overall demand is expected to show rapid growth. The PRC is expected this year, air purifier products retail volume and retail sales year-on-year growth will reach 19.3% and 23.6%.

Data show that in October this year, online air purifier sales reached 244 thousand units, an increase of 8840f5c124c97c51bed8474bb443115d118.1%, growth of 21.5%. and an air purifier, in November 11th reached 620 million yuan of sales, an increase of 113.1%. from the product structure, with high particle air filter function products accounted for the highest, reaching 85.9%. from the price distribution, 2000 yuan to 2999 yuan are most favored by consumers, sales accounted for more than 29.7%. air purifier in the western developed countries in high penetration. American household penetration rate of 27%, Canada, Italy, Japan and other countries of the popularity rate is above 20%. The popularity of China’s air purifier ownership rate is less than 1%. A huge room for improvement.

In recent years, China’s air purifier industry to maintain rapid growth, the industry average annual growth rate of sales reached 47.7%, sales amount reached an average annual growth rate of 43.1%. growth momentum agencies believe that air purifier main source of the rapid rise in electricity, accelerate the air purifier market sales channels change. At present, the young consumer market is becoming the main force of consumption, 52.2% of consumers online buy air purifier products, the consumer demand directly stimulating the online retail market scale. From January to May this year, China’s air purifier market online retail accounted for more than 54%, is expected to online retail sales accounted for this year is expected to reach 61%. in addition, the new national standard air purifier landing will also bring to the market expansion opportunities. This year, the new national standard in March 1st the formal implementation of the air purifier, air purifier brands have large layout, clean air output ratio (Cadr) production Product will grow rapidly, the future will become the main battlefield of the air purifier market.

 

The battle to buy a smog mask in India’s pollution-Olans two products you deserve

My own mother usually kicks off our phone conversations by asking, “Have you eaten yet?” But since I m

oved to New Delhi three weeks ago, she has adopted a new opening question: “Have you bought a mask or air purifiers?”

This weekend, I finally relented and bought a face mask designed to protect against pollution particles. I did it for mom. But I also did it because Delhi’s air has reached levels of toxicity that are putting my asthmatic lungs — really anyone’s lungs — in serious danger.

I wasn’t the only Delhi-walla looking for protection.

When I arrived at Nirvana Being, a small shop in the city’s upscale Khan Market that sells anti-pollution products, there were at least 15 people in line to buy face masks. By the time I made my purchase, there were around 20 more.

In depth: Delhi’s fight for clean air

“When we opened that store people thought I was nuts,” said Jai Dhar Gupta, who heads the store’s parent company. “Now we have lines for 10 hours a day.”

Gupta declined to share exact sales figures, but he claims to have sold more masks in the past 10 days than he sold all of last year.

It’s a scene playing out all over the city — in pharmacies, electronics stores and anywhere else that sells masks and air filters that might provide relief.

Already notorious because of its toxic air, pollution in Delhi has skyrocketed over the past week. Measurements of dangerous particles taken at the U.S. Embassy in Delhi put the city’s Air Quality Index (AQI) at 999 on Monday, off the standard chart, which finishes at the “hazardous” level of 500.

The suffocating smog has reduced visibility in the city to just a few meters, and the Delhi government has closed schools for at least three days.

The dire situation has taken anti-pollution devices and attire from niche to mainstream, with a report by research firm TechSci predicting that the air purifier market in India will go from 40,000 units to 100,000 units over the next year and generate over $200 million in revenue by 2021.

So,If you don’t want to wear a mask at home/office/school.You should buy a air purifier for home/office/school to ues.

Suggestion air purifiers:    

031

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This product has 6 stage filers. Air flow reach:220m³/h.

                                                            Anion:50 million  cubic centimetre per hour.

                                                            PM2.5:99.5%

                                                            Applicable area:40m³

                                                            Control operation:Panei Buttons+remote control

                                                            Protection Function:Dumping Switch

In addition:It has humidification function.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

03

  And the left side of the product call KJ400FK04(A/B/C)is has 6 stage filters too.

                                            Anion:50 million  cubic centimetre per hour.

                                            PM2.5:99.9%

                                            Noise:17.4db

                                             Applicable area:40m³

                                             Control operation:Touch Screen+remote control

                                              Protection Function:Dumping Switch

What’s more, it has big CADR(air flow) reach 350m³/h.

 

 

The demand for purifiers has increased more particularly due to smaller kids and senior citizens

In the wake of Delhi-NCR region reeling under record breaking pollution levels, the sale of air purifying equipment such as air purifiersand N-95 masks has escalated manifold during last three days in Indirapuram.

The demand of air purifiers is soaring at an all time high in the market and their immediate availability is out of stock. “The demand for air purifiers has increased in the last three days especially in the last two days. We have sold more than 15 pieces today itself and almost a dozen of them have been booked in advance as well,” said Dheeraj, a salesman.

The demand for purifiers has increased more particularly due to smaller kids and senior citizens, who are the worst hit in this air pollution crisis. “I am buying this purifier for sake of my mother who is 60 years old. She has been complaining of respiratory problems for the last two-three days and has been coughing a lot,” said P Verma, customer and resident of Ashiana Upavan, Indirapuram, who was browsing at an electronic store.

“I have two kids, who are 10 and 6 years old. I live on 13th floor and the effect of smog has been bothering my family for long. I had bought this air purifier yesterday itself,” said another customer.

“I was in an urgent need so I thought of coming to a retail store like CROMA, otherwise the sale of these purifiers is also strong online and will cost 10 percent less as well,” said a customer.

A basic air purifier consists of a three layer filteration system; the first filter is the ‘Pre filter’ which cleanses the solid, slightly large impure particles from the environment like hair, larger dust particles, small insects etc., the second filter is called a ‘Carbon filter’ which absorbs the harmful and toxic fumes, cigarette smoke, foul smell among more and the final step of filtration is called ‘Hapa filter’, which cleanses the air of any bacteria and viruses. However, features like digital indicators and sound sensors are basically found in the more expensive purifiers.

At the same time, the demand of face covering masks has also critically increased.

To combat the current level of air pollution, which falls under the P3 level of pollution, special N-95 masks have stormed through the markets which are specially equipped for handling such drastic levels of pollution. “I had bought this N-95 mask today itself, because I have been experiencing breathing issues since yesterday. I tried four different pharmacies but it was out of stock everywhere. I finally got it for Rs 200 from a guy who was selling these for twice the cost,” said a passerby.

Another mask user said, “I have been trying to look for the N-95 masks since yesterday but it was out of stock everywhere, that is why I have bought these simple surgical masks for myself and my children, which are priced at Rs 6 per piece.”

 

 

All you need to know before purchasing an air purifier

What an air purifier?

An air purifier is a simple device consisting of a fan (or two) and filters. Since most pollutants are suspended particulates, these devices work by mechanically separating the pollutants by forcing air through filters. Typically, they don’t consume much electricity either, ranging from 15 to 60 watts depending on the filtration capacity and additional features.

Why do you need one?

There are many different sources of air pollution and if you live in a city, chances are, you need one of these already. Breathing cleaner air helps you sleep better, improves lung function and overall health. If someone in the family suffers from allergies, one of these can be quite useful because it will remove common allergens like pollen, dust, pet hair and so on.

How do you choose one?

Air purifiers are rated with a coverage area (square feet). Measure your room and buy something that has a higher coverage. For instance, if your room is 300sq feet, buy something that is rated for 400sq feet or higher. There are multiple brands to choose from now and the rest depends on your budget and the kind of features you require.

How many do you need?

This depends on where you need clean air. If you’re getting just one, start with the bedroom because that’s where you’ll be sleeping and where you’ll spend the most amount of time.You can move them from room to room as required but it will take a while for it to clean a room completely. Ideally, each room needs to have one of it’s own.

What kind & how many filters do they have?

The primary filter you should look for is HEPA or high-efficiency particulate air filter. It mechanically separates pollutants from the air since it has multiple layers of interlocked fibers. [prisna-wp-translate-show-hide behavior=”show”]The HEPA is the most expensive type of filter. [/prisna-wp-translate-show-hide]There’s also usually a carbon filter which is used to remove odours and dissolved chemicals.Some of the devices include a washable pre-filter -this catches the larger dust particles, hair, pet dander and so on. You can periodically take it out, cleanwash it and ..

Where should you place it?

Placement is important for maximum efficacy. The clean air delivery rate and effective coverage area is measured with the device in an empty room. If you place it under a table, right up against a wall or in between large pieces of furniture, the amount of air it can circulateclean is reduced. Give it enough room and it should work a lot better. Also keep in mind that they work only with closed doors windows.

Any other filter tips?

Filters need to be replaced periodically. This is where the recurring cost of the air purifier lies. Some air purifiers have multiple filters and some have compound filters (two or three in one). If you can, find out the cost of the filters and expected life before making a purchase.
Be sure to switch off the air purifier when sweeping the room -it greatly prolongs the life of the unit. You can also use a vacuum cleaner on the front of a filter to clear off accumulated dust.

Extra features

An ionizer generates negative ions which claims to attract and neutralise harmful particles in the air.Some studies have shown that using ionizers can lead to breathing issues (electromagnetically charged particles can turn into Ozone) so we advise avoiding this feature. Humidifiers use water stored in a tank to boost humidity. Other things you can look for a night mode (extra quiet), WiFi and smartphone control, air quality indicator, display, remote control and temperature humidity sensors. < ..

More about air pollution

Air pollution is not only caused by your car and bursting of crackers. Sources can include seasonal crop burning, construction, burning of fossil fuels in factories, waste landfills and even green house gas emission. Indoor air can also be worse than outdoor air because pollutants accumulate -accelerated by poor ventilation and additional sources of indoor pollution like cooking, pets and chemical cleaning products.

 

Can air purifiers and masks protect you from the poisonous Delhi air?

With worsening smog levels turning Delhi (NCR) into a virtual gas chamber, demand for air purifiers and masks is at an all-time high. Delhi experienced the worst smog in 17 years after Diwali, with PM2.5 readings, which have a safe limit of 60 micrograms per cubic meter, having gone up to an alarming 900 in some parts of the city last week. The situation triggered a spurt in the purchase of air purifiers and masks in the national capital.

airpollution“I bought an air purifier and masks primarily because of my children. My son and daughter were complaining about discomfort in breathing after Diwali night,” says Prasanna Singh, a resident of Alakhnanda in South Delhi. However, he’s clueless about the effectiveness of the masks and air purifier. He adds,

I don’t know whether they actually help in filtering out particulate matter and hazardous gases or not.

Prasanna isn’t the only one expressing concern over the quality of masks and purifiers; YourStory spoke to several people who purchased them – all seemingly unaware of the true effectiveness of the products.

When it comes to air purifiers, one tends to look at the lower and mid-range products in the market and get excited by the area covered and the lower prices (in the range of Rs 10,000-20,000). One must read the fine print – these devices have inferior motors and far inferior filters.

Multi brand air purifier “on the black list”

The winter is coming, haze also changes with the seasons, your home air purifier safety performance? How?

Recently, the National Quality Inspection Bureau, Beijing Consumers Association and other departments concerned about the air purifier product quality performance, quality inspection report released the air purifier and the comparison of the test results. Consumers in the purchase of air purifier, safety performance not only pay attention to the product, to avoid the risk of leakage, but also from the angles of comprehensive consideration of purification efficiency of air purifier, choose their own products. Multi brand products are unsafe household appliances as air purification device, its safety performance must be guaranteed, but the 2016 air purifier national product quality supervision and inspection results of special release in the country General Administration of quality inspection in October 19th showed that many batches of product safety, EMC project failed, to touch the live parts The protection, leakage current and electric strength and working temperature, leakage current and electric project, EMC project unqualified, continuous disturbance voltage of 8 batches of substandard, continuous harassment power of 4 batches of substandard. The unqualified products related to “novowater”, “Yusana”, “sheeraire” seats “” Morrell, moral “,” refinair “,” somputon SIASUN “and other brands.

Similarly, in October 20th, Beijing City Consumers Association released air purifier comparison test results show that the air purifier samples of 50 brands of 50 enterprises in the production or distribution of the 7 samples, there are security risks.

Among them, the brand of” Samsung (Samsung) “model for” air purifier kj250g-k3026pw “(side panel pink)” sign “,” power connection and external flexible cords “project does not meet the national standard. Net U.S. official. The brand product purification efficiency of unqualified consumers in the purchase of air purifiers, are often the most attention. The purification effect of products according to the performance requirements of the national standard gb/t 18801-2015< air purifier “, is from a plurality of index to measure the overall performance. For example, the amount of clean air (called Cadr), purification efficiency, noise, application area, cumulative the amount of purified (CCM) purification, life, standby power, the release amount of harmful substances, removal of microorganisms (bacteria, mildew, bacteria). If these items are not standard, means that the product purification effect on the whole. For example, poor product quality checks the State Quality Inspection Administration issued the results show that the particles of clean air volume 2 batches of substandard particles accumulation amount of purified 1 batches of unqualified, formaldehyde purification efficiency (effectiveness) of 3 batches of substandard, noise of 5 batches of substandard. Among them, the nominal” Beijing net U.S. official Net U.S. official air purifier Environmental Technology Co., Ltd. production (trademark for the “net U.S. official mfresh”, type “m8188a 220V to 50Hz 70W”, “2016-01-25” batch production “) particles clean gas, formaldehyde purification efficiency two project failed. Beijing City Consumers Association released air purifier comparative test results showed that 14 samples did not meet the requirements of the” qualified “purification efficiency level, the brand of” SHARP sharp “, type” kc-w380sw-w “air purifier” formaldehyde purification efficiency “does not meet the standard requirements; sample measurement of noise near 1/5 over express value too much, suspected of misleading consumers.

How to choose an air purifier: 6 tips to help you find the best one

Diwali marks the beginning of winter smog in north India and the air remains thick with pollution till April. If your lungs are protesting and you are at your wits end over what to look for in an air-purifier to clean indoor air, look no further.

Barun Aggarwal, CEO of BreatheEasy, provider of indoor air purifying solutions, gives a checklist of things to look for in an air-purifier for your home or workplace.

HEPA filter is a must

Check the specification of the air purifier to see whether it has a HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter. “There are many products in the market which say HEPA-like filters, people must avoid these. The HEPA filter clears out the small particulate matter (PM2.5 and less) that can go deep within the lungs and cause respiratory problems,” said Aggarwal.

Heavy activated charcoal

While buying an air purifier ensure that it has activated charcoal in it to remove harmful gasses as well as bad odours.

Check for a pre-filter

Buy air purifiers that have a pre-filter to remove the larger particulate matter. “In an air purifier that doesn’t have a pre -filter, even the large particulate matter present in the air would reach the HEPA filter and reduce its efficiency,” Aggarwal said.

 

Pre-filter can be easily cleaned or replaced, prolonging the life-span of the purifier.

High Clean Air Delivery Rate

The higher the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR ) , the more air gets purified. The number describes the purifier’s ability to remove all pollutants from specific amount of air.

Area to be purified

Usually manufacturers list the area the air purifier works best in square feet. “While buying a purifier, you have to halve the area and see whether it suits your need. This is because manufacturers test equipment in a sealed environment with the purifier running at high speed. These conditions are not possible in real life because running a purifier at full speed is noisy and home and offices have leaky windows and doors opening, which brings doown efficiency,” said Aggarwal.

Avoid purifiers with negative ions, photocatalytic oxidation, UV lights

Avoid air purifiers that have either of the three specifications as these can potentially release ozone as a by-product. “Ozone is harmful for the lungs and is known to lead to more incidents of asthma attacks and other respiratory problems,” Aggarwal said.

 

China’s anti-pollution tech is booming, but it can’t make dirty air go away

Behind a red wooden door, down a Beijing alley, lies what is allegedly the cleanest air spot in the smog-sodden city. Numerous air purifiers gently whir in the Breathing Space Courtyard, in the Chinese capital’s Beixinqiao area.

Dotted around the courtyard’s main building, which houses the headquarters of Beijing startup Origins Technology, are small, sleek alarm clock-like monitors showing air quality index (AQI) readings. Called Laser Eggs, these 499 yuan (£53) monitors display flicking numbers that seldom go above 10, showing officially “excellent” air quality levels, according to the scale recognised by China’s Ministry of Environmental Protection.

People walk down a street wearing masks on a heavy pollution evening in Beijing, China

Claiming to use technology “typically only found in air quality monitors priced upwards of $5,000”, the Origins Technology egg works by using a small fan to pull in air through the unit. A laser cuts through the air and is linked to a sensor which detects information about the size and number of particles in the air.

Origins Technology, which launched in 2013, doesn’t reveal precise sales figures but says it has sold “tens of thousands” of the Laser Eggs since they hit the market last July. Now sold in Apple stores across China, they are symptomatic of a sharp increase in pollution awareness across the country and a recent boom in the air purification industry.

The airpocalypse

The year 2013 is sometimes referred to by Beijingers as the “airpocalypse” year: a particularly terrible time for pollution in the city that caused many to move away or rush to buy air purifiers.

Pollution was basically “denied” in China before 2013, says Thibaud Andre, research associate at China-based market research firm Daxue Consulting, which produces market reports for foreign retail firms. But after the airpocalypse, Chinese leaders and the media started to speak about pollution. “Then in January 2015 the mayor of Beijing, Wang Anshun, said Beijing was ‘not a liveable city’. That’s a big statement,” says Andre.

In line with the increase in public awareness of the problem, the government has vowed to tackle the chronic pollution “with all our might”. Authorities have introduced a new environmental law aiming to tackle the problem at its root but critics say it is not enough. December saw “red alert” measures taken in Beijing over smog, with cars taken off the roads and factories ordered to stop or scale back production.

Domestic air purifiers were almost unheard of in China before 2013. But, according to Daxue Consulting, the China air purification industry (which includes domestic and office purification products) shot up in value to 3.5bn yuan (£384m) that year. And in 2014 the number of air purifier brands operating in China leapt from 151 to 556.

Following the 2013 boom, the air purifier market was flooded with low-quality products as companies scrambled for a piece of the action. Technology giants such as Xiaomi, Olansi which started selling air purifiers in 2014, aggressively entered the market with mass-market, low-cost products designed to undercut their more premium rivals.

 

With mist fountain and air purifiers, Delhi gears up for fight against pollution

The Aam Aadmi Party government said on Friday it will install giant outdoor air purifiers at five highly polluted locations in Delhi, unveiling more measures to battle the capital’s smog.

A mist fountain will also be set up in a yet-to-be identified location, transport minister Satyendar Jain said amid a steady spike in pollution levels, which experts say can cause several ailments ranging from respiratory problems to even cancer in humans.

Jain said the systems, to be installed by mid-December, will be placed at road intersections in Anand Vihar, ITO, Sarai Kale Khan, Kashmere Gate and IIT (Delhi) or AIIMS.

The units works on the lines of a home air purifier by trapping particulate matter, besides improving dispersion of pollutants that remain suspended just above ground in winter.

Experts, however, are skeptical about the system, which has a functional radius of 20 meters and could fail when pollution levels are too high.

Anumita Roychowdhury of the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) – a Delhi-based research group — said it was not a good idea.

“Purification works in a confined space, not in the open. The government should focus on other short-term measures,” she said.

Last winter – a period when air toxicity jumps manifold -– the AAP government had twice introduced a rationing measure that allowed vehicles to ply on alternate days based on registration numbers ending with odd or even digits. The effort, however, failed to yield the desired results.

An official said the Wind Augmentation and Air Purifying Unit (WAYU) — developed by IIT Bombay and National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) – can potentially reduce particulate emission by 40%-60% during peak traffic hours.

The government believes the move will indicate its intent to improve Delhi’s air quality which is expected to deteriorate with farmers in neighbouring states such as Punjab and Haryana starting their annual crop residue burning.

On Friday, particulate matter (PM) level in Delhi’s most polluted zone — Anand Vihar — touched 960 micrograms/cubic meter against a safe level of 60.

The System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) also said in its Diwali forecast that PM 2.5 — minute particulates that penetrate the lungs and cause breathing ailments — would increase by up to 20%.

Sources said that open air purification is not a tried and tested measure as one system was installed in Hong Kong in April 2015 without much success.