Tag - Air Purifier Buying Guide

Trying to keep the dirty air away from their children and older parents.

NEW DELHI — For days, many in Delhi have been living as if under siege, trying to keep the dirty air away from their children and older parents.

 

But it is not easy: Open a window or a door, and the haze enters the room within seconds. Outside, the sky is white, the sun a white circle so pale that you can barely make it out. The smog is acrid, eye-stinging and throat-burning, and so thick that it is being blamed for a 70-vehicle pileup north of the city.

If in past years Delhi’s roughly 20 million residents shrugged off wintertime pollution as fog, over the past week they viewed it as a crisis. Schools have been ordered closed for three days — an unprecedented measure, but not a reassuring one because experts say the concentration of pollutants inside Indian homes is typically not much lower than outside.

A family rode a scooter during heavy smog and dust in Delhi on Sunday.

Levels of the most dangerous particles, called PM 2.5, reached 700 micrograms per cubic meter on Monday, and over the weekend they soared in some places to 1,000, or more than 16 times the limit India’s government considers safe. The damage from sustained exposure to such high concentrations of PM 2.5 is equivalent to smoking more than two packs of cigarettes a day, experts say.

 

“There is so much smog outside that today, inside my house, I felt as though someone had just burned a few sheets of paper,” said Amaan Ahuja, one of dozens who shared their families’ experiences in response to a request from The New York Times.

“You can literally see smoke in the air, and when you breathe, you can smell it, too,” he said. “We are trying to keep the kids indoors with all the windows closed.”

Another reader, Tulika Seth, described her family’s life over the past week as “unnatural and disturbing.”

Asked where she lived, she responded, “a gas chamber.”

To understand the health consequences of the dense smog that settled over India’s capital over the past week, scientists are looking back decades in search of a historical precedent:to the 1952 Great Smog of London, which is believed to have caused as many as 12,000 premature deaths.

In that case, a layer of dense pollution — caused largely by emissions from burning coal — dissipated after four days, when the weather changed. But an uptick in deaths continued for weeks afterward, so shocking the public that it spurred a wave of environmental regulations.

Delhi’s chief minister on Sunday announced a series of emergency measures, including a five-day moratorium on construction, a 10-day closure of a power plant and a three-day closure of about 1,800 public schools.

On Monday, the city government released a list of health guidelines, advising citizens to wash their eyes with running water and to go to a hospital if they were experiencing symptoms like “breathlessness, giddiness, chest pain and chest constriction.”

But experts said mitigating the conditions would have required policies to be put in place months ago.

“These are all decent emergency measures, but they’re not solving the long-term problem,” said Bhargav Krishna, who manages the Public Health Foundation of India’s environmental health center.

“The best we can hope for, in a way, is to plan for next year,” he added. “This year is almost a washout.”

Changing weather conditions are likely to disperse the dense cloud of pollutants over the next few days. But they will also bring the beginning of the widespread burning of trash, including plastic and rubber, for warmth by Delhi’s poor.

Among the persistent problems for policy makers is that the sources of the pollution — vehicles, construction, crop burning and holiday fireworks —

fall under the authority of half a dozen city, state and federal government bodies, which are in some cases at odds with one another politically, Mr. Krishna said.

“Where exactly is the responsibility for implementing these plans?” he said. “At whose desk does this all lie?”

He added, “The diffuse nature of power means that it is easy to pass on responsibility to others.”

Public anger over Delhi’s air is more palpable than in previous years, and people are more likely to identify pollution as the cause of their health problems.

Anumita Roychowdhury, who runs the air pollution program at the Center for Science and Environment, said that sense of urgency would have to be sustained if the city were to impose lifestyle changes, including restraints on car travel.

This has to translate to very strong support for very hard decisions,” she said. “All soft options are over.”

First, though, people here must get through the next few days.

Sherebanu Frosh, who lives in Gurgaon, south of Delhi, said she and her children were “cowering by our air purifiers,” which had become overloaded with the concentration of particles in the air.

“So we’re putting both our purifiers in one room and spending the day there,” she said. “If we leave, we wear masks.”

Jessica Farmer, whose children attend the American Embassy School in Delhi, said she had moved five purifiers into three rooms of her house, but the concentration of PM 2.5 in some places remained at 300, five times the W.H.O. recommended limit.

“It is as though we are under siege,” Ms. Farmer said. “We can’t go outside, to malls or movies where the air is not purified.

“How can one live like this?”

As for this situation,suggestion some olansi air purifier for you.02

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You deserve it .

 

The battle to buy a smog mask in India’s pollution-Olans two products you deserve

My own mother usually kicks off our phone conversations by asking, “Have you eaten yet?” But since I m

oved to New Delhi three weeks ago, she has adopted a new opening question: “Have you bought a mask or air purifiers?”

This weekend, I finally relented and bought a face mask designed to protect against pollution particles. I did it for mom. But I also did it because Delhi’s air has reached levels of toxicity that are putting my asthmatic lungs — really anyone’s lungs — in serious danger.

I wasn’t the only Delhi-walla looking for protection.

When I arrived at Nirvana Being, a small shop in the city’s upscale Khan Market that sells anti-pollution products, there were at least 15 people in line to buy face masks. By the time I made my purchase, there were around 20 more.

In depth: Delhi’s fight for clean air

“When we opened that store people thought I was nuts,” said Jai Dhar Gupta, who heads the store’s parent company. “Now we have lines for 10 hours a day.”

Gupta declined to share exact sales figures, but he claims to have sold more masks in the past 10 days than he sold all of last year.

It’s a scene playing out all over the city — in pharmacies, electronics stores and anywhere else that sells masks and air filters that might provide relief.

Already notorious because of its toxic air, pollution in Delhi has skyrocketed over the past week. Measurements of dangerous particles taken at the U.S. Embassy in Delhi put the city’s Air Quality Index (AQI) at 999 on Monday, off the standard chart, which finishes at the “hazardous” level of 500.

The suffocating smog has reduced visibility in the city to just a few meters, and the Delhi government has closed schools for at least three days.

The dire situation has taken anti-pollution devices and attire from niche to mainstream, with a report by research firm TechSci predicting that the air purifier market in India will go from 40,000 units to 100,000 units over the next year and generate over $200 million in revenue by 2021.

So,If you don’t want to wear a mask at home/office/school.You should buy a air purifier for home/office/school to ues.

Suggestion air purifiers:    

031

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This product has 6 stage filers. Air flow reach:220m³/h.

                                                            Anion:50 million  cubic centimetre per hour.

                                                            PM2.5:99.5%

                                                            Applicable area:40m³

                                                            Control operation:Panei Buttons+remote control

                                                            Protection Function:Dumping Switch

In addition:It has humidification function.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  And the left side of the product call KJ400FK04(A/B/C)is has 6 stage filters too.

                                            Anion:50 million  cubic centimetre per hour.

                                            PM2.5:99.9%

                                            Noise:17.4db

                                             Applicable area:40m³

                                             Control operation:Touch Screen+remote control

                                              Protection Function:Dumping Switch

What’s more, it has big CADR(air flow) reach 350m³/h.

 

 

Buying an air-purifier: HEPA filters are a must, as is the right size

delhi, delhi pollution, delhi air pollution, air pollution delhi, delhi pollution, delhi pollution control, delhi air pollution control, delhi news, india news"

(Surgical masks, despite their popularity in Delhi these days, are useless against the smog and pollution haze.)

The blanket of toxic air over Delhi — the product of road and construction dust, vehicle emissions, crop- and waste-burning, smoke from Diwali fireworks, and the currently prevalent cool, still atmospheric conditions – doesn’t seem to be lifting. While the government struggles to get moving on an effective long-term plan to tackle the problem, many residents have begun to invest in air purifiers for their homes and cars. Here’s what to look for while buying one.

All modern air-purifiers feature High Efficiency Particulate Arrestance (HEPA) filters. These filters are generally rated to trap particles as small as 0.3 microns – for perspective, the thickness of a strand of human hair is about 50-150 microns. Therefore, any air purifier with a HEPA filter should be able to block out both PM 2.5 (particles that are 2.5-10 microns in diameter) and PM 10 (10 microns or more in diameter) particulates. To guard against possible confusion over what the acronym ‘HEPA’ denotes, it is a good idea to ensure the air-purifier mentions having both a ‘True HEPA filter’ and a rating of at least 0.3 microns. Some companies like Sharp claim their air-purifiers also neutralise germs — including e-coli and tuberculosis bacteria, H1N1 virus and even fungal spores — by mimicking the naturally occurring positive and negative ions in the air. You could buy a regular air-purifier and pair it with a standalone ionizer for the same effect.

Size matters

An air-purifier’s effectiveness will depend greatly on how big your room is, how much air the purifier can circulate, and how much ‘outside air’ gets in at any given time. Most manufacturers say what size of room their purifiers would be effective for, but a thumb rule is to buy one bigger than the rated room size. So, for a room that is 300 sq feet in size, it is best to purchase an air-purifier that can handle at least 400 sq ft. Also, because the extraordinary density of the current pollution and the volumes of air flowing in and out of the room will lower the purifier’s effectiveness, it is advisable to shut all doors and windows.

Delivery rate

The size match relies on an aspect of these devices called the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR), which denotes how much air can be purified of all its particles, expressed in cubic feet per minute. Normally, there are three CADR ratings, one each for Smoke, Pollen and Dust, as these three particles tend to vary in size and thus are filtered out at varying efficiencies.

When purchasing an air-purifier, insist on getting all three numbers, given that smoke particles measure 0.09-1 micron, and are the hardest to filter out effectively. The higher the CADR number, the more effective the air purifier is for a given size of room.

Pollution masks

The surgical masks some people have been wearing are useless. They don’t seal your mouth and nose, and don’t filter out anything. Most pollution masks with a N99 rating (filtering 99% of particulate matter) will filter out dust particles, but will not do anything about the fumes.

Since desperate times — such as those prevalent in Delhi these days — call for desperate measures, a 3M face mask, paired with a P95 filter and an organic vapour cartridge, is an effective solution. This combination allows even chronic asthmatics to move around outdoors without problems. In fact, the mask filters out odours from cigarette smoke, vehicular emissions and even garbage dumps.

A less bulky option could be a mask from Respro, a UK-based company that makes neoprene masks that are equally effective. Respro’s Techno mask is ideal for the current situation as it comes with a P99 filter (rated to 0.3-micron efficiency) along with an organic vapour filter built in.

Fresh hot words: haze influence you?

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Recently, much of the country has suffered haze weather, the northeast, North China, central China area have undergone severe haze weather. In late October, haze enveloped Harbin, forcing the bad weather in the primary school, kindergarten classes (suspend class). Recently, the Beijing Municipal Meteorological Bureau (Weather Bureau) within a week released 4 haze early warning I do not know, whether serious haze will affect Beijing’s bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics (Winter Olympic Games)? Winter day, Shanghai AQI Shen childe was bursting with haze volts. The children have been the ten volts haze weather affect? Today and learning together with “d haze related English words!

In English we usually say “haze” the haze, haze is composed of fog and haze, the primary pollutant PM2.5 haze (particulate matter 2.5) refers to the atmosphere in diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micron particles, is particulate matter into the lungs. Affected by haze influence, most areas in serious air pollution, here, small D to introduce the two often appear in weather reports in terms of AQI and api.aqi refers to the “air quality index” (air quality index), API refers to the “air pollution index” (air pollution index), API index is larger, that air pollution is more serious. In English we can also express the haze weather using “airpocalypse”, the word is “air” and “Apocalypse” spelled into the smoke, dust, pollution caused by extreme weather interaction by the air , can be translated as “the end of the air, the end of the air”.

Severe haze weather caused anti-dust masks (anti-dust respirator/mask) (sell out), almost out of the air purifier are also sold out of stock. Some time ago rumors haze weather will affect the reproductive capacity (reproductive capacity) (Khan)?! is it true? The expert response, even if there is also not too much. At present, the haze of harm to human health or the most direct increase of respiratory system disease (respiratory system disease) incidence. So in the face of haze, we want to minimize out at home, remember to close the window! Small D (foodies) are recommended chowhound eat some Qingfeihuatan food, for example pear (pear), orange (Orange), black fungus (black fungus) (snow fungus), tremella. Do you remember?

 

Air purifier sales spike in India as its cities battle pollution

As the government fumbles over effective measures to curb severe air quality in India’s capital of New Delhi, people are increasingly looking at air purifiers for relief.

SEE ALSO: NASA reveals why New Delhi is blanketed with deadly smog

Major ecommerce businesses in India are reporting significant surge in the sales of air purifier units in the country. The product category, which has existed in India for over two decades but struggled to become a household name, has suddenly become a talking point among people on social media.

Amazon India says it sold three times more air purifiers this Diwali compared to the previous month. Almost half of all these orders came from cities such as Delhi, Gurgaon and Bangalore. Flipkart had similar findings, noting that it has seen 2.5 times growth in air purifier units sale compared to last year.

The sudden interest in air purifying products among people comes as several Indian cities report of increasingly growing air pollution after Diwali. The festival of light, which sees many people burst crackers, combined with the burning of farmlands and residual fodders in nearby states, have resulted in an unprecedented severe air quality in New Delhi and several other states in India.

Five days after Diwali, for instance, the air quality index reading of the national capital is still classified as “hazardous”. A report on UNICEF published this week found that over two billion children worldwide breathe polluted air. India and China were among the most affected countries.

Not just air purifiers, but people are also actively looking for air masks for immediate comfort. “Sales of pollution masks have jumped 6X in the last few days with customer demand being 13X over last year. The highest number of orders for pollution masks were placed by customers on Nov. 1. The demand continues to be high from northern India with most orders coming from Delhi,” an Amazon India spokesperson told Mashable India. The surge in sales happened a couple of days after Diwali, which fell on Oct. 30 this year.

Outdoor air purifier project gathers dust

An outdoor air purifier was installed outside Palika Bazaar in 2010.photo: special arrangement

While the Delhi government is considering installing outdoor air purifiers at traffic intersections, it turns out that the last time the city experimented with such a project, it was left hanging for five years.

The New Delhi Municipal Council had set up an air filtering station in 2010, before the Commonwealth Games.

The purifier was installed outside Palika Bazaar in Connaught Place free of cost by a company called System Life on March 6, 2010. The machine cleaned 10,000 cubic metres of air every hour for about 18 months. The system worked by cleaning polluted air of particulate matter and gases with fabric filters, active carbon cartridges and electrostatic filters.

According to System Life India director Dhruv Chanana, the machine was operational till October 18, 2011, before being removed. “It was removed because no one wanted to accept the need to clean the air,” said Mr. Chanana, adding that had the NDMC gone ahead with more such purifiers, the pollution levels in the area would have reduced. That being said, the authorities have remained mum on the effectiveness of such a project.

Dr. P.K. Sharma, NDMC’s Medical Officer of Health, said it was a pilot project and had not received the necessary approvals to continue. “It was a free demonstration by the company. Before continuing with the project, it required clearance of the Central Pollution Control Board and the Delhi Pollution Control Committee. We are yet to receive that,” said Dr. Sharma.

95% efficiency

The air samples from the trial were analysed by three Italian scientists, including from the University of Modena. Their report was submitted to the NDMC and subsequently to the DPCC.

According to the report, a copy of which is with The Hindu , a total of 2.12 kg of particulate matter had been detained in 860 hours and the filtering efficiency of the system was 95 per cent.

The report concluded that with an “appropriate number of systems” (about 22 for Connaught Place) the air quality of an area could improve.

The DPCC, which works under the Delhi government’s Environment and Forest Department, for its part, did not make any comments on the efficiency of the system, as per a letter sent by one of its scientists to System Life on October 12, 2010. According to the letter, a copy of which is with The Hindu , the DPCC had not commented on the report “as no specific study was undertaken” by it.

Environmentalists, however, used the experience of the NDMC project to question the AAP government’s proposal to install outdoor air purifiers. Anumita Roychowdhury, the head of the Centre for Science and Environment’s air pollution and clean transportation programme, said air purifiers worked within confined environments, “but outdoor air is a complex chemistry with dynamic movement pattern”.

How to choose an air purifier: 6 tips to help you find the best one

Diwali marks the beginning of winter smog in north India and the air remains thick with pollution till April. If your lungs are protesting and you are at your wits end over what to look for in an air-purifier to clean indoor air, look no further.

Barun Aggarwal, CEO of BreatheEasy, provider of indoor air purifying solutions, gives a checklist of things to look for in an air-purifier for your home or workplace.

HEPA filter is a must

Check the specification of the air purifier to see whether it has a HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter. “There are many products in the market which say HEPA-like filters, people must avoid these. The HEPA filter clears out the small particulate matter (PM2.5 and less) that can go deep within the lungs and cause respiratory problems,” said Aggarwal.

Heavy activated charcoal

While buying an air purifier ensure that it has activated charcoal in it to remove harmful gasses as well as bad odours.

Check for a pre-filter

Buy air purifiers that have a pre-filter to remove the larger particulate matter. “In an air purifier that doesn’t have a pre -filter, even the large particulate matter present in the air would reach the HEPA filter and reduce its efficiency,” Aggarwal said.

 

Pre-filter can be easily cleaned or replaced, prolonging the life-span of the purifier.

High Clean Air Delivery Rate

The higher the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR ) , the more air gets purified. The number describes the purifier’s ability to remove all pollutants from specific amount of air.

Area to be purified

Usually manufacturers list the area the air purifier works best in square feet. “While buying a purifier, you have to halve the area and see whether it suits your need. This is because manufacturers test equipment in a sealed environment with the purifier running at high speed. These conditions are not possible in real life because running a purifier at full speed is noisy and home and offices have leaky windows and doors opening, which brings doown efficiency,” said Aggarwal.

Avoid purifiers with negative ions, photocatalytic oxidation, UV lights

Avoid air purifiers that have either of the three specifications as these can potentially release ozone as a by-product. “Ozone is harmful for the lungs and is known to lead to more incidents of asthma attacks and other respiratory problems,” Aggarwal said.

 

China’s anti-pollution tech is booming, but it can’t make dirty air go away

Behind a red wooden door, down a Beijing alley, lies what is allegedly the cleanest air spot in the smog-sodden city. Numerous air purifiers gently whir in the Breathing Space Courtyard, in the Chinese capital’s Beixinqiao area.

Dotted around the courtyard’s main building, which houses the headquarters of Beijing startup Origins Technology, are small, sleek alarm clock-like monitors showing air quality index (AQI) readings. Called Laser Eggs, these 499 yuan (£53) monitors display flicking numbers that seldom go above 10, showing officially “excellent” air quality levels, according to the scale recognised by China’s Ministry of Environmental Protection.

People walk down a street wearing masks on a heavy pollution evening in Beijing, China

Claiming to use technology “typically only found in air quality monitors priced upwards of $5,000”, the Origins Technology egg works by using a small fan to pull in air through the unit. A laser cuts through the air and is linked to a sensor which detects information about the size and number of particles in the air.

Origins Technology, which launched in 2013, doesn’t reveal precise sales figures but says it has sold “tens of thousands” of the Laser Eggs since they hit the market last July. Now sold in Apple stores across China, they are symptomatic of a sharp increase in pollution awareness across the country and a recent boom in the air purification industry.

The airpocalypse

The year 2013 is sometimes referred to by Beijingers as the “airpocalypse” year: a particularly terrible time for pollution in the city that caused many to move away or rush to buy air purifiers.

Pollution was basically “denied” in China before 2013, says Thibaud Andre, research associate at China-based market research firm Daxue Consulting, which produces market reports for foreign retail firms. But after the airpocalypse, Chinese leaders and the media started to speak about pollution. “Then in January 2015 the mayor of Beijing, Wang Anshun, said Beijing was ‘not a liveable city’. That’s a big statement,” says Andre.

In line with the increase in public awareness of the problem, the government has vowed to tackle the chronic pollution “with all our might”. Authorities have introduced a new environmental law aiming to tackle the problem at its root but critics say it is not enough. December saw “red alert” measures taken in Beijing over smog, with cars taken off the roads and factories ordered to stop or scale back production.

Domestic air purifiers were almost unheard of in China before 2013. But, according to Daxue Consulting, the China air purification industry (which includes domestic and office purification products) shot up in value to 3.5bn yuan (£384m) that year. And in 2014 the number of air purifier brands operating in China leapt from 151 to 556.

Following the 2013 boom, the air purifier market was flooded with low-quality products as companies scrambled for a piece of the action. Technology giants such as Xiaomi, Olansi which started selling air purifiers in 2014, aggressively entered the market with mass-market, low-cost products designed to undercut their more premium rivals.

 

New bike café adds solar, wind, an air purifier, and recycles coffee grounds into flowers

Wheelys Green Warrior bike cafe

The Wheelys 4, or the Green Warrior, can put you in the saddle of a bike-based small business for under $5000.

The latest iteration of the Wheelys micro-café, a bicycle-based pop-up coffee shop that can be pedaled to where the business is, instead of attracting customers to it, is getting closer to being a truly ‘ecological café bike,’ thanks to some artful revisions to the design and functionality of this mobile business. Two years ago, we told you that for $3000, you could own one of the world’s smallest cafés from Wheelys, and since then, hundreds of these organic indie coffee shops (well, sort of indie, as there is a franchise option) have been sold to javapreneurs in more than 40 countries, with many success stories from their pedaling baristas.

Wheelys Green Warrior bike cafe

he Green Warrior is the ambitious name of the new Wheelys bike café, and the design is just packed with features, ranging from a triple burner stove to a 3-basin sink with running water, as well as an awning, a small solar panel (no specs), LED lights, a water heater, an audio system, a fridge, a 3G WiFi router and a digital display, and of course, all of the coffee-making equipment. The specs don’t mention battery storage for powering all these electric gizmos, but perhaps that was an oversight, as it’s a must-have for a mobile business.

The new Wheelys will also offer an optional mini wind turbine, as well as an integrated air purifier  “that actually CLEANS the air from smog particles.” I kind of have my doubts as to whether or not a small air purifier like this could have a significant impact on local air pollution, but there aren’t very many details about this aspect of the café.

Wheelys Green Warrior bike cafe
One cool element of the Wheelys 4 Green Warrior is statement that the bike owners could turn their recycled coffee grounds “into small soil cubes packed with flower seeds, which we plant on the way to work.” And they must have anticipated our questions, because the very next sentence reads “No, we are not kidding!”

Just like the launch of the earlier Wheelys bikes, the Green Warrior is also using crowdfunding as a way to jumpstart the new product, with an Indiegogo campaign in the works that has already doubled its goal in just three days.

hose who want to run their very own “Starbucks killer” bike cafés can reserve theirs for a pledge of $4999, which Wheelys contrasts to the cost of starting a Starbucks ($500,000), and which could bring in the owners of these pedaling coffee carts as much as $700 to $1000 per day in the right location. And with the Wheelys franchise fee being just under $200 per month (USD), it’s also said to be the world’s cheapest franchise, as well as being the “fastest growing food franchise ever,” so this could be the organic pedalpreneur opportunity you’ve been waiting for.

 

With mist fountain and air purifiers, Delhi gears up for fight against pollution

The Aam Aadmi Party government said on Friday it will install giant outdoor air purifiers at five highly polluted locations in Delhi, unveiling more measures to battle the capital’s smog.

A mist fountain will also be set up in a yet-to-be identified location, transport minister Satyendar Jain said amid a steady spike in pollution levels, which experts say can cause several ailments ranging from respiratory problems to even cancer in humans.

Jain said the systems, to be installed by mid-December, will be placed at road intersections in Anand Vihar, ITO, Sarai Kale Khan, Kashmere Gate and IIT (Delhi) or AIIMS.

The units works on the lines of a home air purifier by trapping particulate matter, besides improving dispersion of pollutants that remain suspended just above ground in winter.

Experts, however, are skeptical about the system, which has a functional radius of 20 meters and could fail when pollution levels are too high.

Anumita Roychowdhury of the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) – a Delhi-based research group — said it was not a good idea.

“Purification works in a confined space, not in the open. The government should focus on other short-term measures,” she said.

Last winter – a period when air toxicity jumps manifold -– the AAP government had twice introduced a rationing measure that allowed vehicles to ply on alternate days based on registration numbers ending with odd or even digits. The effort, however, failed to yield the desired results.

An official said the Wind Augmentation and Air Purifying Unit (WAYU) — developed by IIT Bombay and National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) – can potentially reduce particulate emission by 40%-60% during peak traffic hours.

The government believes the move will indicate its intent to improve Delhi’s air quality which is expected to deteriorate with farmers in neighbouring states such as Punjab and Haryana starting their annual crop residue burning.

On Friday, particulate matter (PM) level in Delhi’s most polluted zone — Anand Vihar — touched 960 micrograms/cubic meter against a safe level of 60.

The System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) also said in its Diwali forecast that PM 2.5 — minute particulates that penetrate the lungs and cause breathing ailments — would increase by up to 20%.

Sources said that open air purification is not a tried and tested measure as one system was installed in Hong Kong in April 2015 without much success.